Spanish 1B is a continuation of introductory course and is the rough equivalent to the second half of Level 1 Spanish in high school. The class begins with a thorough review of the present tense and related grammar units, reinforcing the foundation that was begun in Spanish 1A. Vocabulary lessons related to ordinal numbers, places in town, superlatives and comparatives, and reflexive verbs add to the strength of this foundation. Being about to speak about events in the past as well as to respond to instructions are key components to the Spanish 1B curriculum. For this reason, the major units studied at this level concentrate on the preterit (past) tense and the imperative verb tense. Daily activities stress all four modalities: speaking, listening, reading and writing. The cultural units studied in Spanish 1B will vary, depending on the specialization of the teacher. In the past, topics have included peninsular cuisine, pre-Colombian history, and how to bargain in the marketplace. These lessons help bring relevance to the student as they explore the richness in the lives of the people of Latin America and Spain. Successful completion of this course advances the student to the next level, Spanish 2.